Self-Sufficient Gardening & Permaculture 101

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A guide to self-sufficient gardening and permaculture for beginners.
Table of Contents
This article is based on my personal experience and in part on the teachings of the excellent Don Giardino. If you want to learn more about gardening and permaculture, I highly recommend his book and his website.

Introduction: The Art of Reading Nature’s Signals

Having a green thumb isn’t just about having some magical ability to grow plants. It’s about being an excellent observer of nature and learning to understand the signals that plants give us. From recognizing signs of water or nutrient deficiency to detecting pests and diseases, it’s essential to be vigilant and attentive to prevent the use of pesticides and insecticides and to ensure the healthy growth of your plants.

Starting Seedlings

While starting seedlings is essential for some crops, it’s important to know the right time for each type. Remember, though, that buying seedlings from a local farmer’s market is also a good option if you find starting seeds to be challenging.

Examples of Seed Starting Timelines

  • Physalis (Ground Cherry): Start seeds in mid-February to have ripe fruits before frost.
  • Chilies, Eggplants, and Peppers: Starting seeds early (mid-February) provides better results.
  • Tomatoes: Start seeds in mid-March and transplant to the greenhouse by May 1st. For outdoor tomatoes, give them their first nettle liquid feed in their pots and transplant by May 15th.
  • Squash and Melons: Start seeds in mid-April and transplant to the garden by May 1st, providing a small mobile tunnel to protect them from potential frost.
  • Beans and Corn: Wait until mid-May to start seeds or transplant, as they prefer warmer temperatures.
  • Onions: Start seeds in January, but be prepared for a 50% survival rate without heating mats and lamps. Alternatively, use onion sets for an easier start, but be aware that they may not store as well as those grown from seed.

To find the perfect timing for your climate and location, keep records of your seed-starting dates, germination times, and transplanting dates. After a few years, you’ll have a better understanding of the ideal schedule for your garden. At the end of this article you will find a full cultivation calendar.

Time Investment for Self-Sufficiency

The time investment for self-sufficiency depends on the size of the area being cultivated. For example, a small 100 sqm vegetable garden requires about 1 hour of care per day on average, with some days requiring up to 3 hours during planting season. However, there will be days when no work is needed. Processing the harvest also takes time and effort, which increases as more produce is generated. In a year, around 365 hours can be spent maintaining a 100 sqm garden and processing the produce. Larger gardens require more time for care, harvest, and processing, with a 1000 sqm garden potentially becoming a full-time job that can also generate income.

Preserving Produce

Preserving food naturally is an essential skill for self-sufficiency. Some techniques include canning, freezing, fermenting, drying, preserving in salt or saltwater solutions, preserving in oil, preserving in vinegar, preserving in alcohol, preserving with sugar, and vacuum sealing (rarely). These methods have been passed down through generations, allowing for experimentation and adaptation to new crops and situations.

Different containers can be used for preserving food, such as mason jars, weck jars with stainless steel clamps, and bottles with swing-top closures. Choosing the right container and maintaining proper hygiene during the preservation process is crucial to ensure the produce remains safe to consume.

Preservation Techniques

Canning is a practical and sustainable method for preserving food, as it requires no additional energy input after the initial process. Other methods, like using an oven or dehydrator, may require some energy input but can still be made more eco-friendly by using solar power or air-drying when possible. Proper labeling, storage, and regular checks of preserved food help ensure food safety and quality.

In conclusion, self-sufficiency in food production requires a significant time investment, proper planning, and a wide range of preservation techniques. However, the rewards include greater control over one’s food supply, reduced reliance on external sources, and the satisfaction of providing for oneself and one’s family.

Agriculture and Its Cultivation Models

Agriculture encompasses various cultivation methods, including monoculture, mixed-culture, and permaculture. Indoor gardening and aquaponics are not discussed here, as they are more akin to industrial food production facilities than traditional agriculture. Each of these agricultural methods has its advantages and disadvantages, with some being praised for promoting biodiversity and ecological sustainability, while others are criticized for their potential negative impacts on the environment. This article provides an overview of different cultivation methods and their key characteristics, with the aim of understanding which method can be considered ideal and sustainable.

Monoculture, Mixed-Culture, and Permaculture

In a typical garden, one might find elements of all three cultivation methods. For example:

  • Monoculture: Potatoes may take up a significant area, planted alone without being mixed with other crops.
  • Mixed-culture: Onions and carrots can be planted together, as they support each other in repelling pests.
  • Permaculture: Perennial crops like artichokes, green asparagus, and Jerusalem artichokes can provide yields for years in the same location.

Additional Noteworthy Techniques

  1. Conventional Regenerative Agriculture: This method aims to help the soil recover more effectively, using humus-enriching crops and green manure to maintain balanced nutrient levels and improve water retention. It often involves direct seeding in monocultures and may employ herbicides like glyphosate.

  2. Ecological Regenerative Agriculture: The ecological variant of regenerative agriculture is primarily practiced on small-scale plots. It uses no-dig techniques that minimize soil disturbance and promote natural processes, resulting in a more sustainable approach.

  3. Biodynamic Agriculture: This approach focuses on self-regulation, with the number of livestock being kept in balance with the land’s capacity to provide feed. The resulting manure helps maintain soil fertility, creating an ecologically sensible closed-loop system.

  4. Biointensive Agriculture: A relatively new method, primarily used in the market farming scene in the US, that achieves high yields on small plots through well-structured crop rotation and closely spaced rows.

  5. Agroforestry: This concept integrates trees into agricultural land, promoting plant diversity and insect populations while stabilizing the soil’s water balance.

Framework for Good Permaculture

To achieve sustainable permaculture, certain principles should be followed:

  • Complete avoidance of chemical pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides.
  • Use of biodynamic, closed-loop nutrient management with organic compost and herbal extracts.
  • Minimal soil disturbance and selective use of no-dig techniques.
  • Planting specific crops to support insects and pollinators.
  • Use of self-produced or certified organic, open-pollinated seeds.
  • Avoidance of F1 hybrids and genetically modified plants or seeds.
  • Watering with rainwater or pond water, with tap water reserved for extreme droughts.
  • Maintenance of natural habitats for insects and wildlife.

By adhering to these principles, sustainable permaculture can be achieved, promoting ecological balance and biodiversity while providing for our food needs.

Living Soil == Healthy Soil

Defining a healthy soil can be approached in several ways, such as measuring humus content, the number of microorganisms, or the nutrients it contains. There are numerous scientific methods to determine if soil is healthy or not. A healthy soil is teeming with life, from the visible role of earthworms to trillions of invisible microorganisms. A soil rich in microorganisms can be considered healthy. Another important criterion is the soil’s ability to retain water. Thus, the number of organisms and water-retention capacity serve as good indicators of soil health.

A simple yet effective way to maintain healthy soil is proper care and treatment, following nature’s example. Establishing a compost cycle ensures a significant amount of biomass from the garden is returned to the soil. This process increases humus content, improves water retention, and supports nutrient availability for plants. Compost acts as an organic fertilizer, providing not only primary nutrients like potassium and nitrogen but also essential trace elements that are slowly released.

To cultivate healthy soil, avoid using pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides, as they can harm fungi, microorganisms, insects, and plants. Also, refrain from using mineral fertilizers, which can cause nutrient imbalances and negatively affect the pH level. Focus on maintaining a pH level between 6-7 for optimal nutrient uptake by plants, adjusting with natural substances like eggshells for calcium if necessary.

Minimizing soil disturbance is crucial, as it maintains the natural balance of soil life and nutrients, which is essential for long-term soil health. Traditional plowing and tilling methods can harm soil life and release greenhouse gases. Instead, opt for mulching techniques to preserve soil structure and support natural processes.

Water quality also plays a significant role in soil health. In some areas, nitrate levels in surface and groundwater can be problematic due to conventional agriculture practices. To ensure healthy soil, prioritize water quality and explore alternative water sources if necessary.

In conclusion, maintaining healthy soil is a matter of proper care, following nature’s lead, and avoiding harmful substances. By preserving soil life and structure, you can cultivate a thriving garden that benefits both people and the environment.

Natural Fertilizers & Herbal Manure Recipes

The restrictive conditions of permaculture also mean that fewer fertilizing options are available. However, these options are enough to deliver top results without resorting to synthetic or mineral fertilizers. My fertilizers have a huge advantage – they are created in a closed loop using only uncontaminated biomass from my garden. This makes them completely free and accessible to everyone.

Here are the fertilizing options you can use in your vegetable garden. Only fertilizers marked with (*) do not belong to the closed-loop cycle and must be purchased.


Compost is made from garden waste and green cuttings from my own garden. It also includes eggshells from my chickens, organic coffee grounds, and layers of herbs or bee pasture cuttings every 20 cm. Avoid adding cooked or greasy foods to the compost as they attract rodents. Seeds from mature fruits such as tomatoes, physalis, or pumpkins should not be added to the compost either, as they can still germinate even after two years.

Chicken Manure

Chicken droppings are spread over almost the entire growing area during winter months. Chicken manure should never be used directly as a fertilizer, as it is very strong and can cause damage. Instead, let it rest for two weeks and mix it with 50% finished compost to fertilize crops. Chicken manure is an excellent fertilizer for tomatoes and peppers, especially during the flowering stage. If you don’t have chickens, organic guano is a good alternative.

Nettle Manure

Prepare nettle manure as a nitrogen fertilizer from mid-March to mid-April. Mix 5 kg of chopped nettles with 50 to 75 liters of water in a large bucket and let it sit for 10 to 14 days. Stir daily and make sure it foams; when it stops foaming, the manure is ready to use. Strain the mixture and dilute 1 liter of manure with 10 liters of rain or pond water. Apply the diluted manure to plants like tomatoes, zucchini, peppers, pumpkins, melons, and cucumbers sparingly and only three times over a 30-day period.

Cabbage Manure

Begin producing cabbage manure with the first summer cabbage in August. It has a higher potassium and phosphorus content than nettle manure and is used as a booster for high-demanding plants. The production process is identical to that of nettle manure. Dilute cabbage manure at a 1:10 ratio and use it sparingly on new cabbage plants such as Brussels sprouts, kale, or broccoli every 10 days for a 30-day period.

Remember to apply both nettle and cabbage manure only to the soil, as contact with the leaves may cause burn marks.


Tomatentriebjauche is made from excess tomato shoots, leathery lower leaves, and small side shoots. It is prepared in the same way as nettle manure and used specifically for tomatoes. Starting from late July, a 1:10 diluted Tomatentriebjauche is given to each tomato plant every 10 days, providing 0.5 liters per plant. This method helps prevent nutrient deficiencies such as blossom end rot.


Bokashi is a process of incorporating food waste directly into the soil. Unlike composting, bacteria and microorganisms break down the waste, resulting in a better soil structure and nutrient content. Bokashi is best suited for high-consuming plant hotspots, such as pumpkins, cucumbers, or zucchinis, but is not suitable for large areas.

Terra Preta

Terra Preta, or “black earth,” is a South American soil amendment made from burnt wood and urine. It can be created by burning wood until a white ash layer forms and then extinguishing it with a high-nitrogen liquid such as human urine or manure. Terra Preta is an effective way to remineralize the soil every 10 years.


Ackerschachtelhalmbrühe is not a fertilizer, but a strengthening agent. Its high silica content strengthens cell walls, reducing the chances of pest and fungal infestations. It is made from fresh horsetail, boiled and strained, and then sprayed on the plants once during the growth phase.

Beech Leaves

Beech leaves can be collected and used as mulch for tomatoes and other crops. They decompose slowly, protecting the soil and reducing evaporation. The mulching process also reduces the need for watering and can improve the taste of fruits like tomatoes.

Pond Water

Pond water, rich in microorganisms and nutrients, can be used to dilute plant manure and water seedlings. It can promote more robust growth in young plants compared to using rainwater alone.

Horn Shavings

Horn shavings, which must be purchased in organic quality, are high in nitrogen and best used as autumn and spring fertilizers. Be cautious about using them later in the season, as they may interfere with potassium uptake, which plants need during the flowering phase.

Rock Dust

Rock dust is powdered rock that can improve the water-holding capacity of the soil. It can also help prevent blossom end rot in tomatoes and peppers. Finely sifted rock dust can be used as a natural fungicide against powdery mildew.

Lava Mulch

Lava mulch, inspired by the lava-rich soils of Sicily, is rich in minerals and trace elements. It can be used for cultivating Mediterranean herbs, which become more aromatic when grown in lava mulch. Lava mulch also helps with weed control and drainage in garden beds.

Wood Chips

Wood chips are primarily used for garden paths but will eventually decompose and form humus, contributing to soil fertility.

In Conclusion

Throughout this exploration, we have discovered the potential of permaculture and self-sufficient gardening. With innovative techniques, smaller-scale gardening can yield impressive results, promote biodiversity, and pave the way for sustainable food production. While conventional and organic monoculture methods may currently satisfy our needs, it’s crucial to consider alternative approaches for a more resilient and eco-friendly future. Embracing change, innovation, and learning from nature, we can cultivate a greener, more sustainable world.

Cultivation calendar

NolegumesUse - storagecultivation
1broad beansFresh consumption, frozen, driedMarch-July Nov-Jun (annual)
2sugar snapEating fresh, frozenApril – Au (annual)
3wrinkled peasFresh consumption, frozen, driedMarch – Jul (annual)
4Borlotti beanFresh consumption, frozen, driedMay – Sep (annual)
5Runner bean Bernese rural womenFresh consumption, frozen, driedMay – Sep (annual)
6Dry bean Red squintFresh consumption, frozen, driedMay – Aug (annual)
7Dry Bean Black BallFresh consumption, frozen, driedMay – Aug (annual)
8bush beansEat fresh, frozen, steamed and pickled in oil and pickled in salt water and vinegarMay – Aug (annual)
9lensesdriedMay – Aug (annual)
10ChickpeasEating fresh, driedMay – Aug (annual)
11soybeansEating fresh, driedMay – Sep (annual)
Nomorning gloryUse - storagecultivation
12White Sweet PotatoFresh consumption – is storedMay – Nov (annual)
13water spinachfresh consumptionMay – Oct (annual)
NocruciferousUse - storagecultivation
14KaleEating fresh, in a smoothie, kale chipsAug – Feb (annual)
15savoyEating fresh, frozenAug – Feb (annual)
16White CauliflowerEating fresh, frozenApril – Oct (annual)
17Pointed cabbage & white cabbageFresh consumption, frozen, boiled coleslaw, sauerkraut planned, as fertilizer or liquid manureAug – Dec (annual)
18Cauliflowerfresh consumptionAug – Feb (annual)
19broccoliEating fresh, frozenMay – Nov Aug – Jan (annual)
20Red cabbagePickled red cabbage with pieces of appleMay – Sep (annual)
21arugulafresh consumptionApril – Nov (annual)
22field mustardfresh consumptionApril – Nov (annual)
23Kohlrabifresh consumptionApril – Nov (annual)
24Black radishFresh consumption, cough syrupJul-Feb (annual)
25turnipfresh consumptionMarch – Jun Aug – Nov (annual)
26radishfresh consumptionApril – Nov (annual)
Nonightshade familyUse - storagecultivation
27Potatoes (several varieties usually 5)Fresh consumption – is storedApril – Sep (annual)
28Tomatoes (more than 30 varieties / 15 per year periodically)Eating fresh, canned with tomato sauce, canned with tomato-pepper ketchup, driedApril – Nov (annual)
29horn peppersEating fresh, frozenMay – Oct (annual)
30block peppersEating fresh, frozenMay – Oct (annual)
31Lombard peppersEat fresh, frozen, dried and ground into paprika powderMay – Oct (annual)
32Chilies (Pueblo, Thai, Habanero)Eat fresh, dried and ground into chili powder. Pickled in olive oil. Preserved with sweet and sour chiliMay – Oct (annual)
33tree chiliEat fresh, dried and ground into chili powder. Cooked down with chili sweet and sour sauce.May – Oct (annual)
34bell chiliFresh consumption, boiled down with chili sweet and sour sauce.May – Oct (annual)
35Goji berriesDriedall year round
36Physalis / Andean berryEating fresh, driedMay – Oct (annual)
37Peppino / pear melonFresh consumption is storedMay – Oct (annual)
38Aubergines (3 types)Eating fresh, preserved in olive oil, preserved in vinegarMay – Oct (annual)
Noamaryllis plantsUse - storagecultivation
39Onions (5 varieties)Fresh consumption, frozen, dried, is stored. cough syrup, onion powderMarch – Sep (annual)
40shallotsFresh consumption, is storedMarch – Sep (annual)
41garlic (3 kinds)Eating fresh, stored, dried, garlic powderMarch – Sep Nov – Jun (annual)
42LeekEating fresh, frozenJun – Feb (annual)
43chivesFresh consumption, herb butterperennial
44chivesFresh consumption, herb butterperennial
NoumbellifersUse - storagecultivation
45carrots (4 types)Eating fresh, frozen, stored in heaps, for chicken feedApril – Feb (annual)
46celery rootEating fresh, frozen, is stored in heaps of earthApril – Jan (annual)
47celeryEat fresh, frozen, juiced as a smoothieMay – Nov (annual)
48Caraway seedsDried seeds as a spice and for tea mixtures, fresh for herbal schnapps2 year old
49tea fennelDried seeds as a spice and for tea mixtures, young leaves for traditional dishes and herbal schnappsperennial
50aniseDried seeds as a spice and for tea mixtures, fresh umbels for herbal schnapps.April – Sep (annual)
51lovageFresh consumption as a spiceperennial
52ParselyEating fresh, frozenApril – Jan (2 year olds)
53fennelfresh consumptionJul – Dec (annual)
54dillFresh consumption, frozen, driedMay – Oct (annual)
55plantainTincture against insect bites prepared with double grainWild growth Perennial
56buckhornTincture prepared as an expectorant with double grainWild growth Perennial
57nettleFresh consumption of the young shoots and leaves as well as the seeds in the salad, dried, as fertilizer or liquid manureWild growth Perennial
58VogelmireFresh consumption in salads and as chicken feedWild growth Perennial
NomintsUse - storagecultivation
59oreganoDried as a seasoning and for chicken feed, herb vinegar, herb oilperennial
60marjoramDried as a spice, for herbal vinegar,April – Nov (annual)
61rosemaryFresh and dried as a spice, herbal vinegar, tincture with double grain, herbal schnappsperennial
62basilFresh, frozen, dried and made into pestoMay – Sep (annual)
63savoryFresh, dried, preserved in oil with bush beans, herbal teaperennial
64sageFresh, dried, for tea blends, herbal schnappsperennial
65catnipDried for tea blends, herbal schnappsperennial
66lemon balmDried for tea blends, herbal schnappsperennial
67Real thymeFresh and dried as a spice, forperennial
68Wild ThymeFresh and dried as a spice, for tea mixtures, herbal schnappsperennial
69lavenderDried for tea blends, scented sachets, herbal schnapps,perennial
Norose familyUse - storagecultivation
70strawberryEating fresh, boiled down to jam, for smoothies, for strawberry ice cream, fruit leather, rum potperennial
71blackberryEating fresh, boiled down to jam, for smoothies, for blackberry ice cream, fruit leather, rum potperennial
72raspberryFresh consumption, boiled down to jam, for smoothies, for raspberry ice cream, fruit leather, rum potperennial
73aronia berryDried, Rumtopfperennial
74rosesDried for tea blends and bath additivesperennial
NocleaversUse - storagecultivation
75woodruffFreshly made into ice creamperennial
NomintsUse - storagecultivation
76Sicilian mintDried for tea, fresh in herbal schnappsperennial
77Moroccan mintFresh for tea and herbal schnappsperennial
Nosweet grassesUse - storagecultivation
78dry cornDried for cornmeal and crushed for chicken feedMay – Oct (annual)
79Blue popcorn cornDried for cornmeal, popcorn and as chicken feedMay – Oct (annual)
80Bantam SweetcornFresh and as chicken feedMay – Sep (annual)
Noginger familyUse - storagecultivation
81GingerFresh as a spice and tea blendApril – Nov (annual)
82turmericFresh and dried as a spiceApril – Nov (annual)
NocucurbitsUse - storagecultivation
83Green zucchiniFresh canned in sweet and sour (ZuCuma)April – Oct (annual)
84Zucchini 40 GiorniFresh, frozen, perfect for Mediterranean minestrone as well as fried in thin slices, canned in sweet and sourApril – Oct (annual)
85Zucchini 7 AnniFreshperennial
86Hokkaido pumpkinFresh, frozen, is stored, kernels are dried with saltApril – Oct (annual)
87Butternut squashFresh, frozen, is storedApril – Oct (annual)
88Sicilian watermelonFresh and processed into melon granita or juiceMay – Sep (annual)
89Siberian watermelonFresh and processed into melon granita or juiceMay – Sep (annual)
90gherkinFresh and pickled with Silesian cucumber bites, whole cucumbers in vinegar and salted cucumbersMay – Aug (annual)
91outdoor cucumberFresh in salads or rawMay – Sep (annual)
92cucumberFresh in salads or rawMay – Sep (annual)
93Inca cucumberFresh as a stuffed pickleMay – Sep (annual)
94Mexican mini cucumberFresh as a snack in the gardenMay – Sep (annual)
95Jagulan (Herb of Immortality)Dried for tea blendsperennial
Nobeet plantsUse - storagecultivation
96chardFresh, frozen, for pasta filling, chard patties, fermented stalks in salt water. chicken feedApril – April (annual)
97BeetrootFresh, frozen raw in carpaccio or cooked.April – Aug Aug – Dec (annual)
Nodaisy familyUse - storagecultivation
98mugwortDried as a smoked product and as a spiceperennial
99sunflowerKernels are dried as a snack and for bird and chicken feedApril – Sep (annual)
100marigoldFresh, dried, in salads, for tea mixtures, herbal schnapps, tincture with double grain, preserved in oil, for wound ointments based on coconut fat or olive oil, insect foodperennial
101Jerusalem ArtichokeFresh as raw food or in salads, chicken feedperennial
102Artichoke imperialWhole flowers filled, artichoke hearts fresh, made into meatballs, bitters. Leaves dried for tea blend (extremely bitter)perennial
103Sicilian spiny artichokeArtichoke hearts fresh and frozen, the leaves are made into bittersperennial
104lettuceFresh in the saladMarch – Dec (annual)
Nodaisy familyUse - storagecultivation
105chamomileDried for tea blend, fresh for double grain tinctures, insect foodWild growth Perennial
106Lollo rossoFresh in salads and as chicken feedApril – Nov (annual)
107Lollo BiondaFresh in salads and as chicken feedApril – Nov (annual)
108Various cut saladsFresh in salads and as chicken feedApril – Nov (annual)
109tagetesTo repel wireworms, nematodes and whitefly. Dried as a spiceApril – Nov (annual)
Nofoxtail plantsUse - storagecultivation
110spinachFresh, frozenMarch – Jul Aug – Nov (annual)
111amaranthYoung leaves before flowering like spinach, dried seeds as a grain substitute, boiled with double the amount of water and mashed for chicken feed.April – Nov (annual)
Nohoneysuckle familyUse - storagecultivation
112Lamb’s lettuceFresh for saladsMarch – Jul Aug – Nov (annual)
Noasparagus plantsUse - storagecultivation
113Green asparagusFreshperennial
114Blue AsparagusFreshperennial
Noknotweed plantsUse - storagecultivation
115rhubarbFreshly made into jamsperennial
NoEdible FlowersUse - storagecultivation
116NasturtiumFresh, dried, frozen as a spice, herbal tea, in salads, insect food, tincture with double grain, young seeds pickled in vinegar or salt as false capersMay – Nov (annual)
117Cornflower (various varieties)Fresh in salads, dried for tea mixtures, insect foodApril – Nov (annual)
118borageFresh in salads or as a garden snack, insect foodApril – Nov (annual)
NoEdible FlowersUse - storagecultivation
119cosmeaFresh in salads or as a garden snack, insect foodApril – Nov (annual)
120Seed mix 40 varietiesFresh in salads or as a garden snack, insect foodApril – Nov (annual)
Notrees & shrubsUse - storagecultivation
121kiwiFresh or cooked into jamperennial
122passion fruitNo yield yetperennial
123plate peachFreshperennial
124Red Heaven peachFresh and preserved in jarsperennial
125White MulberryFreshperennial
126sweet chestnutFreshly roasted, boiled in the oven or in water, dried into chestnut flour, canned as a spreadperennial
127“““Apple Trees Gala”””""""Fresh, dried as dried apples, canned applesauceperennial
128sour cherryFresh for jamperennial
129pear treesFreshperennial
130fig treesFresh and driedperennial
131MirabelleFresh and dried, Rumtopfperennial
132plum treeFresh and dried, Rumtopfperennial
133giant cherryFresh, canned as whole churches, rum topf, jamperennial
134pasturesEarly flowering bee food, fences, support sticks, bed edgingperennial
135wild cherriesBee food, shade providerperennial
136elder treeDried elderflowers and fresh elderflower juice & liqueur. Berries boiled down to jam with blackberries and elderberry juice, insect foodperennial
137hazelnut treesNuts fresh and dried, sticks as tendril aids and support sticks.perennial
138olive treeNo significant earnings yet.perennial
139walnut treeDried nuts, tannins in the leaves as a decoction for weed suppression on wood chip paths.perennial
140Sichuan pepperDried seed coat as a spiceperennial
141Various vinesFresh, cooked with plums for jam, rum pot, traditional Sicilian mostarda (similar to fruit leather)perennial
142spice laurelDried as a spiceperennial
143blueberry bushesFresh as a garden snack, Rumtopfperennial
144gooseberryFresh as a garden snack, Rumtopfperennial
145currant bushesFresh as a garden snack, rum pot, boiled down to currant jellyperennial
146quince treeQuince confection, cooking water becomes quince vodkaperennial