Introduction: The Art of Reading Nature’s Signals
Having a green thumb isn’t just about having some magical ability to grow plants. It’s about being an excellent observer of nature and learning to understand the signals that plants give us. From recognizing signs of water or nutrient deficiency to detecting pests and diseases, it’s essential to be vigilant and attentive to prevent the use of pesticides and insecticides and to ensure the healthy growth of your plants.
While starting seedlings is essential for some crops, it’s important to know the right time for each type. Remember, though, that buying seedlings from a local farmer’s market is also a good option if you find starting seeds to be challenging.
Examples of Seed Starting Timelines
- Physalis (Ground Cherry): Start seeds in mid-February to have ripe fruits before frost.
- Chilies, Eggplants, and Peppers: Starting seeds early (mid-February) provides better results.
- Tomatoes: Start seeds in mid-March and transplant to the greenhouse by May 1st. For outdoor tomatoes, give them their first nettle liquid feed in their pots and transplant by May 15th.
- Squash and Melons: Start seeds in mid-April and transplant to the garden by May 1st, providing a small mobile tunnel to protect them from potential frost.
- Beans and Corn: Wait until mid-May to start seeds or transplant, as they prefer warmer temperatures.
- Onions: Start seeds in January, but be prepared for a 50% survival rate without heating mats and lamps. Alternatively, use onion sets for an easier start, but be aware that they may not store as well as those grown from seed.
To find the perfect timing for your climate and location, keep records of your seed-starting dates, germination times, and transplanting dates. After a few years, you’ll have a better understanding of the ideal schedule for your garden. At the end of this article you will find a full cultivation calendar.
Time Investment for Self-Sufficiency
The time investment for self-sufficiency depends on the size of the area being cultivated. For example, a small 100 sqm vegetable garden requires about 1 hour of care per day on average, with some days requiring up to 3 hours during planting season. However, there will be days when no work is needed. Processing the harvest also takes time and effort, which increases as more produce is generated. In a year, around 365 hours can be spent maintaining a 100 sqm garden and processing the produce. Larger gardens require more time for care, harvest, and processing, with a 1000 sqm garden potentially becoming a full-time job that can also generate income.
Preserving food naturally is an essential skill for self-sufficiency. Some techniques include canning, freezing, fermenting, drying, preserving in salt or saltwater solutions, preserving in oil, preserving in vinegar, preserving in alcohol, preserving with sugar, and vacuum sealing (rarely). These methods have been passed down through generations, allowing for experimentation and adaptation to new crops and situations.
Different containers can be used for preserving food, such as mason jars, weck jars with stainless steel clamps, and bottles with swing-top closures. Choosing the right container and maintaining proper hygiene during the preservation process is crucial to ensure the produce remains safe to consume.
Canning is a practical and sustainable method for preserving food, as it requires no additional energy input after the initial process. Other methods, like using an oven or dehydrator, may require some energy input but can still be made more eco-friendly by using solar power or air-drying when possible. Proper labeling, storage, and regular checks of preserved food help ensure food safety and quality.
In conclusion, self-sufficiency in food production requires a significant time investment, proper planning, and a wide range of preservation techniques. However, the rewards include greater control over one’s food supply, reduced reliance on external sources, and the satisfaction of providing for oneself and one’s family.
Agriculture and Its Cultivation Models
Agriculture encompasses various cultivation methods, including monoculture, mixed-culture, and permaculture. Indoor gardening and aquaponics are not discussed here, as they are more akin to industrial food production facilities than traditional agriculture. Each of these agricultural methods has its advantages and disadvantages, with some being praised for promoting biodiversity and ecological sustainability, while others are criticized for their potential negative impacts on the environment. This article provides an overview of different cultivation methods and their key characteristics, with the aim of understanding which method can be considered ideal and sustainable.
Monoculture, Mixed-Culture, and Permaculture
In a typical garden, one might find elements of all three cultivation methods. For example:
- Monoculture: Potatoes may take up a significant area, planted alone without being mixed with other crops.
- Mixed-culture: Onions and carrots can be planted together, as they support each other in repelling pests.
- Permaculture: Perennial crops like artichokes, green asparagus, and Jerusalem artichokes can provide yields for years in the same location.
Additional Noteworthy Techniques
Conventional Regenerative Agriculture: This method aims to help the soil recover more effectively, using humus-enriching crops and green manure to maintain balanced nutrient levels and improve water retention. It often involves direct seeding in monocultures and may employ herbicides like glyphosate.
Ecological Regenerative Agriculture: The ecological variant of regenerative agriculture is primarily practiced on small-scale plots. It uses no-dig techniques that minimize soil disturbance and promote natural processes, resulting in a more sustainable approach.
Biodynamic Agriculture: This approach focuses on self-regulation, with the number of livestock being kept in balance with the land’s capacity to provide feed. The resulting manure helps maintain soil fertility, creating an ecologically sensible closed-loop system.
Biointensive Agriculture: A relatively new method, primarily used in the market farming scene in the US, that achieves high yields on small plots through well-structured crop rotation and closely spaced rows.
Agroforestry: This concept integrates trees into agricultural land, promoting plant diversity and insect populations while stabilizing the soil’s water balance.
Framework for Good Permaculture
To achieve sustainable permaculture, certain principles should be followed:
- Complete avoidance of chemical pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides.
- Use of biodynamic, closed-loop nutrient management with organic compost and herbal extracts.
- Minimal soil disturbance and selective use of no-dig techniques.
- Planting specific crops to support insects and pollinators.
- Use of self-produced or certified organic, open-pollinated seeds.
- Avoidance of F1 hybrids and genetically modified plants or seeds.
- Watering with rainwater or pond water, with tap water reserved for extreme droughts.
- Maintenance of natural habitats for insects and wildlife.
By adhering to these principles, sustainable permaculture can be achieved, promoting ecological balance and biodiversity while providing for our food needs.
Living Soil == Healthy Soil
Defining a healthy soil can be approached in several ways, such as measuring humus content, the number of microorganisms, or the nutrients it contains. There are numerous scientific methods to determine if soil is healthy or not. A healthy soil is teeming with life, from the visible role of earthworms to trillions of invisible microorganisms. A soil rich in microorganisms can be considered healthy. Another important criterion is the soil’s ability to retain water. Thus, the number of organisms and water-retention capacity serve as good indicators of soil health.
A simple yet effective way to maintain healthy soil is proper care and treatment, following nature’s example. Establishing a compost cycle ensures a significant amount of biomass from the garden is returned to the soil. This process increases humus content, improves water retention, and supports nutrient availability for plants. Compost acts as an organic fertilizer, providing not only primary nutrients like potassium and nitrogen but also essential trace elements that are slowly released.
To cultivate healthy soil, avoid using pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides, as they can harm fungi, microorganisms, insects, and plants. Also, refrain from using mineral fertilizers, which can cause nutrient imbalances and negatively affect the pH level. Focus on maintaining a pH level between 6-7 for optimal nutrient uptake by plants, adjusting with natural substances like eggshells for calcium if necessary.
Minimizing soil disturbance is crucial, as it maintains the natural balance of soil life and nutrients, which is essential for long-term soil health. Traditional plowing and tilling methods can harm soil life and release greenhouse gases. Instead, opt for mulching techniques to preserve soil structure and support natural processes.
Water quality also plays a significant role in soil health. In some areas, nitrate levels in surface and groundwater can be problematic due to conventional agriculture practices. To ensure healthy soil, prioritize water quality and explore alternative water sources if necessary.
In conclusion, maintaining healthy soil is a matter of proper care, following nature’s lead, and avoiding harmful substances. By preserving soil life and structure, you can cultivate a thriving garden that benefits both people and the environment.
Natural Fertilizers & Herbal Manure Recipes
The restrictive conditions of permaculture also mean that fewer fertilizing options are available. However, these options are enough to deliver top results without resorting to synthetic or mineral fertilizers. My fertilizers have a huge advantage – they are created in a closed loop using only uncontaminated biomass from my garden. This makes them completely free and accessible to everyone.
Here are the fertilizing options you can use in your vegetable garden. Only fertilizers marked with (*) do not belong to the closed-loop cycle and must be purchased.
Compost is made from garden waste and green cuttings from my own garden. It also includes eggshells from my chickens, organic coffee grounds, and layers of herbs or bee pasture cuttings every 20 cm. Avoid adding cooked or greasy foods to the compost as they attract rodents. Seeds from mature fruits such as tomatoes, physalis, or pumpkins should not be added to the compost either, as they can still germinate even after two years.
Chicken droppings are spread over almost the entire growing area during winter months. Chicken manure should never be used directly as a fertilizer, as it is very strong and can cause damage. Instead, let it rest for two weeks and mix it with 50% finished compost to fertilize crops. Chicken manure is an excellent fertilizer for tomatoes and peppers, especially during the flowering stage. If you don’t have chickens, organic guano is a good alternative.
Prepare nettle manure as a nitrogen fertilizer from mid-March to mid-April. Mix 5 kg of chopped nettles with 50 to 75 liters of water in a large bucket and let it sit for 10 to 14 days. Stir daily and make sure it foams; when it stops foaming, the manure is ready to use. Strain the mixture and dilute 1 liter of manure with 10 liters of rain or pond water. Apply the diluted manure to plants like tomatoes, zucchini, peppers, pumpkins, melons, and cucumbers sparingly and only three times over a 30-day period.
Begin producing cabbage manure with the first summer cabbage in August. It has a higher potassium and phosphorus content than nettle manure and is used as a booster for high-demanding plants. The production process is identical to that of nettle manure. Dilute cabbage manure at a 1:10 ratio and use it sparingly on new cabbage plants such as Brussels sprouts, kale, or broccoli every 10 days for a 30-day period.
Remember to apply both nettle and cabbage manure only to the soil, as contact with the leaves may cause burn marks.
Tomatentriebjauche is made from excess tomato shoots, leathery lower leaves, and small side shoots. It is prepared in the same way as nettle manure and used specifically for tomatoes. Starting from late July, a 1:10 diluted Tomatentriebjauche is given to each tomato plant every 10 days, providing 0.5 liters per plant. This method helps prevent nutrient deficiencies such as blossom end rot.
Bokashi is a process of incorporating food waste directly into the soil. Unlike composting, bacteria and microorganisms break down the waste, resulting in a better soil structure and nutrient content. Bokashi is best suited for high-consuming plant hotspots, such as pumpkins, cucumbers, or zucchinis, but is not suitable for large areas.
Terra Preta, or “black earth,” is a South American soil amendment made from burnt wood and urine. It can be created by burning wood until a white ash layer forms and then extinguishing it with a high-nitrogen liquid such as human urine or manure. Terra Preta is an effective way to remineralize the soil every 10 years.
Ackerschachtelhalmbrühe is not a fertilizer, but a strengthening agent. Its high silica content strengthens cell walls, reducing the chances of pest and fungal infestations. It is made from fresh horsetail, boiled and strained, and then sprayed on the plants once during the growth phase.
Beech leaves can be collected and used as mulch for tomatoes and other crops. They decompose slowly, protecting the soil and reducing evaporation. The mulching process also reduces the need for watering and can improve the taste of fruits like tomatoes.
Pond water, rich in microorganisms and nutrients, can be used to dilute plant manure and water seedlings. It can promote more robust growth in young plants compared to using rainwater alone.
Horn shavings, which must be purchased in organic quality, are high in nitrogen and best used as autumn and spring fertilizers. Be cautious about using them later in the season, as they may interfere with potassium uptake, which plants need during the flowering phase.
Rock dust is powdered rock that can improve the water-holding capacity of the soil. It can also help prevent blossom end rot in tomatoes and peppers. Finely sifted rock dust can be used as a natural fungicide against powdery mildew.
Lava mulch, inspired by the lava-rich soils of Sicily, is rich in minerals and trace elements. It can be used for cultivating Mediterranean herbs, which become more aromatic when grown in lava mulch. Lava mulch also helps with weed control and drainage in garden beds.
Wood chips are primarily used for garden paths but will eventually decompose and form humus, contributing to soil fertility.
Throughout this exploration, we have discovered the potential of permaculture and self-sufficient gardening. With innovative techniques, smaller-scale gardening can yield impressive results, promote biodiversity, and pave the way for sustainable food production. While conventional and organic monoculture methods may currently satisfy our needs, it’s crucial to consider alternative approaches for a more resilient and eco-friendly future. Embracing change, innovation, and learning from nature, we can cultivate a greener, more sustainable world.
|No||legumes||Use - storage||cultivation|
|1||broad beans||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||March-July Nov-Jun (annual)|
|2||sugar snap||Eating fresh, frozen||April – Au (annual)|
|3||wrinkled peas||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||March – Jul (annual)|
|4||Borlotti bean||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||May – Sep (annual)|
|5||Runner bean Bernese rural women||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||May – Sep (annual)|
|6||Dry bean Red squint||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||May – Aug (annual)|
|7||Dry Bean Black Ball||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||May – Aug (annual)|
|8||bush beans||Eat fresh, frozen, steamed and pickled in oil and pickled in salt water and vinegar||May – Aug (annual)|
|9||lenses||dried||May – Aug (annual)|
|10||Chickpeas||Eating fresh, dried||May – Aug (annual)|
|11||soybeans||Eating fresh, dried||May – Sep (annual)|
|No||morning glory||Use - storage||cultivation|
|12||White Sweet Potato||Fresh consumption – is stored||May – Nov (annual)|
|13||water spinach||fresh consumption||May – Oct (annual)|
|No||cruciferous||Use - storage||cultivation|
|14||Kale||Eating fresh, in a smoothie, kale chips||Aug – Feb (annual)|
|15||savoy||Eating fresh, frozen||Aug – Feb (annual)|
|16||White Cauliflower||Eating fresh, frozen||April – Oct (annual)|
|17||Pointed cabbage & white cabbage||Fresh consumption, frozen, boiled coleslaw, sauerkraut planned, as fertilizer or liquid manure||Aug – Dec (annual)|
|18||Cauliflower||fresh consumption||Aug – Feb (annual)|
|19||broccoli||Eating fresh, frozen||May – Nov Aug – Jan (annual)|
|20||Red cabbage||Pickled red cabbage with pieces of apple||May – Sep (annual)|
|21||arugula||fresh consumption||April – Nov (annual)|
|22||field mustard||fresh consumption||April – Nov (annual)|
|23||Kohlrabi||fresh consumption||April – Nov (annual)|
|24||Black radish||Fresh consumption, cough syrup||Jul-Feb (annual)|
|25||turnip||fresh consumption||March – Jun Aug – Nov (annual)|
|26||radish||fresh consumption||April – Nov (annual)|
|No||nightshade family||Use - storage||cultivation|
|27||Potatoes (several varieties usually 5)||Fresh consumption – is stored||April – Sep (annual)|
|28||Tomatoes (more than 30 varieties / 15 per year periodically)||Eating fresh, canned with tomato sauce, canned with tomato-pepper ketchup, dried||April – Nov (annual)|
|29||horn peppers||Eating fresh, frozen||May – Oct (annual)|
|30||block peppers||Eating fresh, frozen||May – Oct (annual)|
|31||Lombard peppers||Eat fresh, frozen, dried and ground into paprika powder||May – Oct (annual)|
|32||Chilies (Pueblo, Thai, Habanero)||Eat fresh, dried and ground into chili powder. Pickled in olive oil. Preserved with sweet and sour chili||May – Oct (annual)|
|33||tree chili||Eat fresh, dried and ground into chili powder. Cooked down with chili sweet and sour sauce.||May – Oct (annual)|
|34||bell chili||Fresh consumption, boiled down with chili sweet and sour sauce.||May – Oct (annual)|
|35||Goji berries||Dried||all year round|
|36||Physalis / Andean berry||Eating fresh, dried||May – Oct (annual)|
|37||Peppino / pear melon||Fresh consumption is stored||May – Oct (annual)|
|38||Aubergines (3 types)||Eating fresh, preserved in olive oil, preserved in vinegar||May – Oct (annual)|
|No||amaryllis plants||Use - storage||cultivation|
|39||Onions (5 varieties)||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried, is stored. cough syrup, onion powder||March – Sep (annual)|
|40||shallots||Fresh consumption, is stored||March – Sep (annual)|
|41||garlic (3 kinds)||Eating fresh, stored, dried, garlic powder||March – Sep Nov – Jun (annual)|
|42||Leek||Eating fresh, frozen||Jun – Feb (annual)|
|43||chives||Fresh consumption, herb butter||perennial|
|44||chives||Fresh consumption, herb butter||perennial|
|No||umbellifers||Use - storage||cultivation|
|45||carrots (4 types)||Eating fresh, frozen, stored in heaps, for chicken feed||April – Feb (annual)|
|46||celery root||Eating fresh, frozen, is stored in heaps of earth||April – Jan (annual)|
|47||celery||Eat fresh, frozen, juiced as a smoothie||May – Nov (annual)|
|48||Caraway seeds||Dried seeds as a spice and for tea mixtures, fresh for herbal schnapps||2 year old|
|49||tea fennel||Dried seeds as a spice and for tea mixtures, young leaves for traditional dishes and herbal schnapps||perennial|
|50||anise||Dried seeds as a spice and for tea mixtures, fresh umbels for herbal schnapps.||April – Sep (annual)|
|51||lovage||Fresh consumption as a spice||perennial|
|52||Parsely||Eating fresh, frozen||April – Jan (2 year olds)|
|53||fennel||fresh consumption||Jul – Dec (annual)|
|54||dill||Fresh consumption, frozen, dried||May – Oct (annual)|
|55||plantain||Tincture against insect bites prepared with double grain||Wild growth Perennial|
|56||buckhorn||Tincture prepared as an expectorant with double grain||Wild growth Perennial|
|57||nettle||Fresh consumption of the young shoots and leaves as well as the seeds in the salad, dried, as fertilizer or liquid manure||Wild growth Perennial|
|58||Vogelmire||Fresh consumption in salads and as chicken feed||Wild growth Perennial|
|No||mints||Use - storage||cultivation|
|59||oregano||Dried as a seasoning and for chicken feed, herb vinegar, herb oil||perennial|
|60||marjoram||Dried as a spice, for herbal vinegar,||April – Nov (annual)|
|61||rosemary||Fresh and dried as a spice, herbal vinegar, tincture with double grain, herbal schnapps||perennial|
|62||basil||Fresh, frozen, dried and made into pesto||May – Sep (annual)|
|63||savory||Fresh, dried, preserved in oil with bush beans, herbal tea||perennial|
|64||sage||Fresh, dried, for tea blends, herbal schnapps||perennial|
|65||catnip||Dried for tea blends, herbal schnapps||perennial|
|66||lemon balm||Dried for tea blends, herbal schnapps||perennial|
|67||Real thyme||Fresh and dried as a spice, for||perennial|
|68||Wild Thyme||Fresh and dried as a spice, for tea mixtures, herbal schnapps||perennial|
|69||lavender||Dried for tea blends, scented sachets, herbal schnapps,||perennial|
|No||rose family||Use - storage||cultivation|
|70||strawberry||Eating fresh, boiled down to jam, for smoothies, for strawberry ice cream, fruit leather, rum pot||perennial|
|71||blackberry||Eating fresh, boiled down to jam, for smoothies, for blackberry ice cream, fruit leather, rum pot||perennial|
|72||raspberry||Fresh consumption, boiled down to jam, for smoothies, for raspberry ice cream, fruit leather, rum pot||perennial|
|73||aronia berry||Dried, Rumtopf||perennial|
|74||roses||Dried for tea blends and bath additives||perennial|
|No||cleavers||Use - storage||cultivation|
|75||woodruff||Freshly made into ice cream||perennial|
|No||mints||Use - storage||cultivation|
|76||Sicilian mint||Dried for tea, fresh in herbal schnapps||perennial|
|77||Moroccan mint||Fresh for tea and herbal schnapps||perennial|
|No||sweet grasses||Use - storage||cultivation|
|78||dry corn||Dried for cornmeal and crushed for chicken feed||May – Oct (annual)|
|79||Blue popcorn corn||Dried for cornmeal, popcorn and as chicken feed||May – Oct (annual)|
|80||Bantam Sweetcorn||Fresh and as chicken feed||May – Sep (annual)|
|No||ginger family||Use - storage||cultivation|
|81||Ginger||Fresh as a spice and tea blend||April – Nov (annual)|
|82||turmeric||Fresh and dried as a spice||April – Nov (annual)|
|No||cucurbits||Use - storage||cultivation|
|83||Green zucchini||Fresh canned in sweet and sour (ZuCuma)||April – Oct (annual)|
|84||Zucchini 40 Giorni||Fresh, frozen, perfect for Mediterranean minestrone as well as fried in thin slices, canned in sweet and sour||April – Oct (annual)|
|85||Zucchini 7 Anni||Fresh||perennial|
|86||Hokkaido pumpkin||Fresh, frozen, is stored, kernels are dried with salt||April – Oct (annual)|
|87||Butternut squash||Fresh, frozen, is stored||April – Oct (annual)|
|88||Sicilian watermelon||Fresh and processed into melon granita or juice||May – Sep (annual)|
|89||Siberian watermelon||Fresh and processed into melon granita or juice||May – Sep (annual)|
|90||gherkin||Fresh and pickled with Silesian cucumber bites, whole cucumbers in vinegar and salted cucumbers||May – Aug (annual)|
|91||outdoor cucumber||Fresh in salads or raw||May – Sep (annual)|
|92||cucumber||Fresh in salads or raw||May – Sep (annual)|
|93||Inca cucumber||Fresh as a stuffed pickle||May – Sep (annual)|
|94||Mexican mini cucumber||Fresh as a snack in the garden||May – Sep (annual)|
|95||Jagulan (Herb of Immortality)||Dried for tea blends||perennial|
|No||beet plants||Use - storage||cultivation|
|96||chard||Fresh, frozen, for pasta filling, chard patties, fermented stalks in salt water. chicken feed||April – April (annual)|
|97||Beetroot||Fresh, frozen raw in carpaccio or cooked.||April – Aug Aug – Dec (annual)|
|No||daisy family||Use - storage||cultivation|
|98||mugwort||Dried as a smoked product and as a spice||perennial|
|99||sunflower||Kernels are dried as a snack and for bird and chicken feed||April – Sep (annual)|
|100||marigold||Fresh, dried, in salads, for tea mixtures, herbal schnapps, tincture with double grain, preserved in oil, for wound ointments based on coconut fat or olive oil, insect food||perennial|
|101||Jerusalem Artichoke||Fresh as raw food or in salads, chicken feed||perennial|
|102||Artichoke imperial||Whole flowers filled, artichoke hearts fresh, made into meatballs, bitters. Leaves dried for tea blend (extremely bitter)||perennial|
|103||Sicilian spiny artichoke||Artichoke hearts fresh and frozen, the leaves are made into bitters||perennial|
|104||lettuce||Fresh in the salad||March – Dec (annual)|
|No||daisy family||Use - storage||cultivation|
|105||chamomile||Dried for tea blend, fresh for double grain tinctures, insect food||Wild growth Perennial|
|106||Lollo rosso||Fresh in salads and as chicken feed||April – Nov (annual)|
|107||Lollo Bionda||Fresh in salads and as chicken feed||April – Nov (annual)|
|108||Various cut salads||Fresh in salads and as chicken feed||April – Nov (annual)|
|109||tagetes||To repel wireworms, nematodes and whitefly. Dried as a spice||April – Nov (annual)|
|No||foxtail plants||Use - storage||cultivation|
|110||spinach||Fresh, frozen||March – Jul Aug – Nov (annual)|
|111||amaranth||Young leaves before flowering like spinach, dried seeds as a grain substitute, boiled with double the amount of water and mashed for chicken feed.||April – Nov (annual)|
|No||honeysuckle family||Use - storage||cultivation|
|112||Lamb’s lettuce||Fresh for salads||March – Jul Aug – Nov (annual)|
|No||asparagus plants||Use - storage||cultivation|
|No||knotweed plants||Use - storage||cultivation|
|115||rhubarb||Freshly made into jams||perennial|
|No||Edible Flowers||Use - storage||cultivation|
|116||Nasturtium||Fresh, dried, frozen as a spice, herbal tea, in salads, insect food, tincture with double grain, young seeds pickled in vinegar or salt as false capers||May – Nov (annual)|
|117||Cornflower (various varieties)||Fresh in salads, dried for tea mixtures, insect food||April – Nov (annual)|
|118||borage||Fresh in salads or as a garden snack, insect food||April – Nov (annual)|
|No||Edible Flowers||Use - storage||cultivation|
|119||cosmea||Fresh in salads or as a garden snack, insect food||April – Nov (annual)|
|120||Seed mix 40 varieties||Fresh in salads or as a garden snack, insect food||April – Nov (annual)|
|No||trees & shrubs||Use - storage||cultivation|
|121||kiwi||Fresh or cooked into jam||perennial|
|122||passion fruit||No yield yet||perennial|
|124||Red Heaven peach||Fresh and preserved in jars||perennial|
|126||sweet chestnut||Freshly roasted, boiled in the oven or in water, dried into chestnut flour, canned as a spread||perennial|
|127||“““Apple Trees Gala”””""""||Fresh, dried as dried apples, canned applesauce||perennial|
|128||sour cherry||Fresh for jam||perennial|
|130||fig trees||Fresh and dried||perennial|
|131||Mirabelle||Fresh and dried, Rumtopf||perennial|
|132||plum tree||Fresh and dried, Rumtopf||perennial|
|133||giant cherry||Fresh, canned as whole churches, rum topf, jam||perennial|
|134||pastures||Early flowering bee food, fences, support sticks, bed edging||perennial|
|135||wild cherries||Bee food, shade provider||perennial|
|136||elder tree||Dried elderflowers and fresh elderflower juice & liqueur. Berries boiled down to jam with blackberries and elderberry juice, insect food||perennial|
|137||hazelnut trees||Nuts fresh and dried, sticks as tendril aids and support sticks.||perennial|
|138||olive tree||No significant earnings yet.||perennial|
|139||walnut tree||Dried nuts, tannins in the leaves as a decoction for weed suppression on wood chip paths.||perennial|
|140||Sichuan pepper||Dried seed coat as a spice||perennial|
|141||Various vines||Fresh, cooked with plums for jam, rum pot, traditional Sicilian mostarda (similar to fruit leather)||perennial|
|142||spice laurel||Dried as a spice||perennial|
|143||blueberry bushes||Fresh as a garden snack, Rumtopf||perennial|
|144||gooseberry||Fresh as a garden snack, Rumtopf||perennial|
|145||currant bushes||Fresh as a garden snack, rum pot, boiled down to currant jelly||perennial|
|146||quince tree||Quince confection, cooking water becomes quince vodka||perennial|